Incredible Utah 1857 Mormon War Period Ft. Bridger Ledger: Afr. American Content, Mention of Armstead, Bernard Bee, RE Lee’s Son, 120pp!
[FORT BRIDGER.] [William A. Carter], Daily Sales Record Book of Livingston, Kinkead & Co., Storekeeper at Camp Scott and Fort Bridger, 1857-1858. 120 pp., 7.625" x 12.25". All pages clean; spine missing; front and back covers present but detached; covers scuffed and worn on edges.
This sales ledger records sales to various individuals at the temporary Camp Scott, established by the U.S. Army expedition to Utah, and at the rebuilt Fort Bridger nearby. The entries for Camp Scott span from December 15, 1857, to March 24, 1858, and those at Fort Bridger from April 2 to May 12, 1858. Because William A. Carter was the agent of Livingston, Kinkead & Company on the Utah Expedition, before settling as the permanent sutler at Fort Bridger, the ledger is likely all or partially in his hand.
Purchasers include various army officers and enlisted men and various federal appointees bound for Utah. Officers listed include Colonel Henry Hopkins Sibley (1816-1886), later the commander of a Confederate cavalry brigade in the Civil War; Lieutenant Lewis A. Armstead (1817-1863), afterward a brigadier general in the Confederate army who was killed in Pickett's Charge at the Battle of Gettysburg; Captain Jesse A. Gove (1824-1862), who commanded the 22nd Massachusetts Volunteers in the Civil War and was killed in the Battle of Gaines' Mill in June 1862; Captain John Dunovant (1825-1864), who later served as a Confederate brigadier general in the Civil War and was killed in October 1864 in the Battle of Peebles' Farm during the siege of Petersburg, Virginia; Colonel Barnard Elliott Bee Jr. (1824-1861), who became a Confederate general and before being killed at the First Battle of Bull Run gave fellow general Thomas J. Jackson his famous nickname of "Stonewall"; Captain Albert Tracy (1818-1893), who served under General John C. Fremont in the West Virginia campaign and rose to the rank of brevet colonel; Lt. Nathan A. M. Dudley (1825-1910), who went on to become a brevet brigadier general in the Civil War, be court-martialed three times, and display incompetence in the Lincoln County War in New Mexico in 1878 before finally retiring in 1889; and Lt. William H. F. "Rooney" Lee (1837-1891), future Confederate General Robert E. Lee's second son, who dropped out of Harvard to join the Utah Expedition and went on to become the youngest Confederate major general.
Civilian customers included Jacob Forney (ca. 1829-1865), appointed by President James Buchanan as Secretary of Indian Affairs in the Utah Territory; Bob Taylor, "(the nigger)" or "(colored)" on different entries; Judge Delana R. Eckels (1806-1888), President Buchanan's anti-Mormon appointee as the chief justice for the Utah Territory, who served until resigning in 1860; Mrs. Lewis "(wash woman)"; Alexander Gillan of the freighting company Russell, Majors, and Waddell, who had contracted to transport the army baggage and supplies; Peter K. Dotson (1823-1898), whom Buchanan had appointed as U.S. Marshal for the Utah territory; and David H. Burr (1803-1875), whom Buchanan had appointed as surveyor general for Utah.
Items purchased included a wide variety of items, including various forms of alcohol, tobacco, knives, candles, paper, fabrics of various sorts, buttons, thread, needles, tea, sugar, salt, pepper, matches, socks, books, decks of cards, soap, pencils, dishes, canned oysters, nails, and many other products.
In mid-1857, President James Buchanan dispatched federal troops to ensure a secular government for the Utah Territory in what became known as the Mormon War. By late September, the U.S. forces under the command of Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston had assembled at Camp Winfield, thirty-five miles from Fort Bridger. They did not continue their advance until early November and took fifteen days to cover the remaining distance to Fort Bridger. Meanwhile, the Mormon forces that had possession of Fort Bridger burned it and nearby Fort Supply to keep them from providing food and shelter to the U.S. troops. Johnston garrisoned what remained of Fort Bridger and stored his supplies there but moved his main force two miles south to establish Camp Scott. In the spring of 1858, an agreement between the U.S. government and Mormon leaders allowed the Army to advance to Salt Lake City and establish a garrison there, ending the Mormon War. A small contingent remained behind and rebuilt Fort Bridger in 1858.
Camp Scott (1857-1858) was established by U.S. troops under the command of Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston in Uinta County, Wyoming, during the Mormon War/Utah War. Located two miles south of the ruins of Fort Bridger, the federal forces abandoned it in 1858. It was named in honor of Winfield Scott (1786-1866), who served as Commanding General of the U.S. Army from 1841 to 1861.
Fort Bridger (1842-1890) was established by Jim Bridger (1804-1881) and Louis Vasquez (1798-1868) in 1843. It served as a vital supply point and stop on the Oregon, California, and Mormon Trails. At Fort Bridger, the Oregon and California trails turn northwest into modern Idaho, while the Mormon Trail continued west to Salt Lake City. In 1853, Mormons tried to arrest Bridger, who fled, and in 1855, they claimed ownership of the fort. During the Utah War, the fort was burned in October 1857 on the approach of the U.S. Army. At the end of the hostilities, the U.S. government rejected the claims of both the Mormons and Bridger and rebuilt Fort Bridger with William A. Carter as post-sutler. From April 1860 to October 1861, it was one of 186 Pony Express stations between St. Joseph, Missouri, and Sacramento, California. Small U.S. Army units were stationed at the fort during the Civil War and regular units occupied it from 1866 to 1878, when it was temporarily abandoned. The Army again occupied it from 1880 to 1890, when it was closed and many of its buildings sold and dismantled.
Livingston, Kinkead & Company was a mercantile business established by James M. Livingston (1821-1898), Howard Livingston (1823-1898), and Charles A. Kinkead (1830-1873) in San Francisco, California. They had previously had a business in Utah and returned with the Utah Expedition in 1858. William A. Carter was their agent at Camp Scott and Fort Bridger before he became post-sutler at Fort Bridger. William Bell succeeded Kinkead in the partnership.
William A. Carter (1818-1881) was born in Virginia. He came to Fort Bridger with General Albert Sidney Johnston's army in 1857 during the Utah War. He served as sutler, justice of the peace, and probate judge at Fort Bridger from 1859 until his death. After he died, his widow Mary Elizabeth Hamilton Carter continued as the post trader until 1890. As one of the region's earliest businessmen, Carter was also involved in mining, oil, logging, and cattle ranching. He also operated a sawmill.
This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.
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