Lot 206

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Booker T. Washington, 17 Pages "Proud of Race...In & out of slavery...It is said that the strongest chain is no stronger than its weakest link." Handwritten Speech Notes

These pages of notes, written by African American leader and educator Booker T. Washington, are likely either speaking points for speeches or points to stress in reports. A few can be tied to specific speeches Washington gave in the mid-1890s. A previous consignor purchased this manuscript for $12,500 in 1999

Washington's approach to the path for African Americans out of slavery was more gradual than that of other African American leaders and aimed for accommodation to white hostility, fearing that the more confrontational methods espoused by others would lead to disaster for his race. The educational institutions and business organizations he nurtured created a more confident and capable generation of leaders who led African Americans to demand equal political and civil rights in the mid-twentieth century.

BOOKER T. WASHINGTON, Manuscript Documents, Notes for Speeches or Reports, ca. 1890-1915. Several pages are written on blank or verso of "Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute" letterhead and one is on the verso of "Grand Union Hotel" stationery from New York City. 17 pp., 5.75" x 8.5" to 8.5" x 11". Some edge tears and small areas of loss; general toning.

"Mind and matter in Industrial Education"
"Tendency toward matter. / Kindergarten &c. / Ind. Ed—mind applied to matter—Conquering forces of nature / more mind more matter"
"Educational Power of Ind. Ed. / Not for less but for its use. / What to do with that thing, Not what is Known"
"Liberia—No common schools, No roads, Pointless boy / Liberian student, / Studying oratory"
Washington delivered a speech entitled "Mind and Matter" before the Alabama State Teachers' Association in Selma on June 5, 1895.

"It is said that the strongest chain is no stronger than its weakest link."
"In the Southern part of our Country are 20,000,000 of your brethern who are bound to you and to whom you are bound with a indisoluble cord from you can not separate yourselves if you would. / (Aim should be to reach lowest) / Negro can be anything."

"two ways of exerting ones strength / Friendship of south"
"quote from recent report, / Justice, / Teach children to be helpful & kind."
"stick to Tuskegee plan. / Influence of Negro leaders"

"Trustee meeting / Land sale"
"Lease land. / New trustees"

"All under law. / 1 weak religious restraint / 2 Exciting passions, / 3 ministering to wicked appetites"
"Reputation—its value, / Publishing bad actions, / Be charitable in judging, / Ridicule / when to speak out, / to protect Soc. / to protect the innocent, / To protect the offender / Shun company of wicked."

"It is a great satisfaction to belong to a race just now when white Americans are likely to find themselves intermingled with the Mongolian and the Malay from the far East and the Latin races from the South, & say that under such circumstances it is a supreme satisfaction to belong to a race that has such a potent drawing power as is true of my race."

This quotation comes from an address Washington delivered to the Christian Endeavor Society on July 7, 1898, in Nashville, Tennessee. His speech was entitled, "The Mutual Dependence of the Races." The Christian Endeavor Society was founded in 1881 as an interdenominational Christian youth society and spread throughout the United States.

"How not to work"
"Dignifying labor / girl / white worker"

"Races, / Is all one, / No trouble between educated, / Do not hear of Progress, / Ignorance & Hatred / No law"
"Needs, / Proud of Race / Serious Problem, / all can help / In & out of slavery, / Red flag."

"Material Progress, / Va & Ga, / Business League, / Negro Conference, / New Homes, / Montgmry Fair, / Columbia Heights, / "Camp Meeting" / Negro Banks, / Negro drugstores,"

"Lincoln university, / what Education should Do / Introduction / Debt to Lincoln,"
"Place to locate. / South new country / Create opportunities / In touch with life about him. / Food, shelter, Roads, Commerce, School Houses, Liberia, Creating centers,"
"self government, / Long view vs. short view"
"Educational / must harness to something"

"Moral & Religious / Criticisms for Culture / Foundation for religion and morals."
"South Hungry / Condition in Black Belt, / Hungry Christian / Emotional Nature / In next world – give up world / Increasing wants / Can create wagon / Superficial Culture (Wedding)"

"Prejudice / Something others way (3 cts) / Picture Tuskegee / Tangible side / Could see bricks / Democratic Paper / Foundation for Political rights, / mistakes, / "Cast down bucket" / Business chance / Building and Riding in cars. / $10,000 in freight"

Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) was born into slavery in Virginia. After emancipation, he moved with his mother moved to West Virginia to join her husband. Washington attended Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (now Hampton University) and Wayland Seminary (now Virginia Union University). In 1881, he became the first leader of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, a normal college founded for the education of African American teachers. Students constructed the buildings of the college and grew their own food on a large farm. In 1895, Washington's Atlanta Address, which promoted vocational and industrial education for African Americans, attracted national attention for him and the Tuskegee Institute. Later referred to as the Atlanta Compromise, Washington's speech was at first supported and later opposed by W. E. B. DuBois and other African American leaders. Washington developed a nationwide network of supporters for the school in black communities throughout the nation. In 1912, he developed a relationship with philanthropist Julius Rosenwald, and Rosenwald's foundation ultimately provided funding for building nearly 5,000 small schools across the South for African American students. After 1909, leaders of the new National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, and especially DuBois, criticized Washington for failing to push a civil rights agenda. Washington advocated a more gradual approach to improving race relations with the cooperation of supportive whites. Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft frequently asked Washington for political advice. Washington wrote fourteen books, including his autobiography Up from Slavery (1901). He also helped found the National Negro Business League to encourage entrepreneurship among African American businessmen.

This item comes with a Certificate from John Reznikoff, a premier authenticator for both major 3rd party authentication services, PSA and JSA (James Spence Authentications), as well as numerous auction houses.


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